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Line. Energy Efficiency is as easy as that!

on .

Integral Energy Management System

Integral Energy Management System

ENERGY MANAGEMENT + INSTALLATION CONTROL + MAINTENANCE

It has never been easier

Total flexibility for any installation

Total flexibility for any installation

The Line devices which are part of the integral Energy Management System (EMSi) offers multiple combinations, allowing you to create a solution custom-made for each installation.

Easy installation

Easy installation

The modular design of the system allows any associated Line device to be installed quickly, securely and automatically thanks to its integrated Bus-Line communications.

Discover the new EMSi system

Discover the new EMSi system

Control and manage your installation: EMSi

The devices in the Line system paved the way for the EMSi concept, which combines the management of different types of energy consumption and the management of multiple control and maintenance systems (lighting, HVAC, etc.) into a single solution.

 

ENERGY MANAGEMENT + INSTALLATION CONTROL + MAINTENANCE

 

Energy management
Management of all your consumption

The EMSi system records all the information on your installation's energy consumption, which it can monitor in real time, display it on graphs, compare data from different periods or display it in data tables so it can be exported outside the application.

The data acquisition is very simple; using the line-EDS device, you can add any meter with Modbus communications to the EMSi system; the Line-M devices with digital inputs let you record consumption using any meter with a pulse output. The electricity consumption is recorded using the Line-CVM-D32 analyzer.

Management of all your consumption

The EMSi software integrated into line-EDS lets you create SCADA displays to show, in real time, where, how, when and how much energy your installation is consuming. This information lets you save on costs and manage the installation globally based on the ISO 50001 standard.

Find out how and where you consume energy.
Find out how and where you consume energy.

Monitor every circuit in your installation
Monitor every circuit in your installation

installation control
Monitor any type of installation

Install Line-EDS and integrate any Modbus RTU or Modbus TCP device that is present in your installation (temperature, humidity, pressure, level or other kind of probe).

Create SCADA screens to control all your automation systems from a single device (Line-EDS). You can use any web browser or PowerStudio Server to control and display the status of your installation in real time, change any setpoint and receive alarms to improve the management of all your control systems.

Easily and dynamically display any regulation system required, such as:

Lighting control

Configure setpoints to automatically turn lights on and off, on a set schedule or by using the astronomical clock feature. It also offers the option to control lighting systems by creating a work schedule, with or without inputs from motion sensors.

Lighting control

Example of lighting control
Example of lighting control

HVAC control

Take external temperature readings, compare them with the setpoint and turn on the HVAC system to drive and monitor the hot water loop. Monitor the condition of the compressors to display the percent load on each and verify they are working correctly.

Example of HVAC control
Example of HVAC control

Temperature control

Check the status of each HVAC unit and adjust the hot/cold setpoints as needed. Create calendars or schedules to program automatic on/ off switching times. Each device can be set based on the schedule or workday, with the option to incorporate motion sensors into the control system.

Example of temperature control
Example of temperature control

Note: The sample screens shown are not set up by default on Line-EDS devices. Each user will be able to generate their own screens based on their needs.

Maintenance of any installation
Maintenance of any installation

Program any type of alarm to monitor the installation depending on the variables of the connected devices. If any parameter is outside its programmed values, the system will adjust the installation and/or send an e-mail instantly.

Maintenance of any installation

It combines every aspect of energy control into a single tool, providing invoice simulations based on the energy consumption of any meter.

Know what the utility will bill in advance and schedule an automatic notification to compare and improve the efficiency of your consumption.

Maintenance of any installation

Maintenance of any installation

Create Energy Performance Indicators (EnPI) to chack if energy improvement actions are working correctly. Create your own KPI, depending on your installation and processes.

  

  

Typical performance indicators:

Typical performance indicators:

Two models, four types of management.

With the Line system devices, you decide how to manage any installation. Manage them using IoT cloud platforms or with our integral Energy Management System, working locally or remotely.

Monitoring system using
Line-EDS-Cloud

Monitoring system using Line-EDS-Cloud

System features:

  • Compatible with the major IoT platforms for Big Data analysis.
  • Distributed system, allowing data from multiple installations to be centralized in the same system.
  • Connect from anywhere with internet access.
  • Does not require installing and maintaining a local server.
  • No programming specialists required.
 

Examples of IoT platforms

Azure platform
Azure platform

AWS platform
AWS platform

Monitoring and control system using Line-EDS-PS

Monitoring and control system
using Line-EDS-PS

EMSi (Integral Energy Management System)

Manage consumption + Installation control + Maintenance

System features:

  • Line-EDS-PS incorporates EMSi software for the integral management of installations.
  • Access EMSi from any web browser, whether in local or remote mode.
  • Does not require installing and maintaining a local server.
  • Generic Modbus driver to add any device on the market.
  • Internal memory for data analysis and traceability using graphs and tables.
  • Energy consumption management.
  • Automatic control of installations.
  • Alarms and billing simulation for proper maintenance.

Accessible via Webserver or PowerStudio

Accessible via Webserver or PowerStudio

Monitoring and control system using
Line-EDS + PowerStudio

Monitoring and control system using
Line-EDS + PowerStudio

System features:

  • Manage your installation from your own server (PowerStudio Server).
  • Add as many devices as you want with PowerStudio Server.
  • Access EMSi from any web browser, whether in local or remote mode.
  • Redundant database through the installation of Line-EDS-PS devices.
  • No limit on memory for data analysis and traceability using graphs and tables.

Features of the monitoring and control system using Line-EDS-PS

System monitoring and control using PowerStudio

System monitoring and control using PowerStudio

System features:

  • Create your Line solution using as many devices as you need, and expand it at any time.
  • Manage your installation from your own server (PowerStudio software).
  • Access EMSi from any web browser, whether in local or remote mode.
  • Add as many devices to your communications network as you want with PowerStudio.
  • No limit on memory for data analysis and traceability using graphs and tables.

Discover the 4 types of management in this webinar

Discover the 4 types of management in this webinar


Line system devices

Complete modular system for energy management

Line-M-3G

Line-EDS

Line-CVM

Line-M-4IO

Line-M-20I

Line-TCPRS1

Line-M-EXT-PS

Line-M-3G

Modem for 3G communications

Line-EDS

Datalogger with integrated Webserver


Line-EDS-Cloud
Line-EDS-PS
Line-EDS-PSS
Line-EDS-PSS-PRO

Line-CVM

Power analyzer


Line-CVM-D32

Line-M-4IO

Input/output modules


Line-M-4IO-T
Line-M-4IO-R
Line-M-4IO-RV
Line-M-4IO-A

Line-M-20I

Module with 20 digital inputs

Line-M-20I

Line-TCPRS1

RS-485 to Ethernet/Wi-Fi converter

Line-M-EXT-PS

Power supply

 

Discover more about the first and unique EMSi of the market

Download the catalogue
LINE. integral Energy Management System, is that easy as that!

 

 Download the datasheets 

Electric cars: Fashion, trend or reality?

on .

We tend to think of electric cars as a disruptive technology

We believe that this is a radical change in mobility, but really the first electric cars already appeared in the early nineteenth century (1832/1839). At the time there were already rumours about cars that made no sound and emitted no smell (in the same way combustion cars would have been at the time) and there was already talk of the importance of autonomy. At the beginning of the 20th century these cars evolved to be able to travel distances greater than 100 miles.

Electric cars: Fashion, trend or reality?However, at the same time Colonel Drake appeared on the scene with his oil wells in the United States, and also Henry Ford with his Ford T, the first combustion car made on an assembly line, and the first great battle between the electric car and the combustion car was won by the latter.

But now, in the 21st century, the situation is very different. The problem with fossil fuels, worldwide legislation promoting electric mobility (Europe has implemented “aggressive” regulations to reduce the greenhouse effect in order to comply with the Paris Climate Agreement) and, above all, the serious problems associated with pollution worldwide, make the electric vehicle a key element in the transformation of society towards a more responsible attitude and awareness of environmental issues.

When thinking of potential future users of electric vehicles, there are two major concerns: firstly, the cost of an EV and secondly, the availability of charging points on public roads, known as emergency recharging.

Recently, Erik Jonnaert, the secretary general of ACEA, (European Association of Automobile Manufacturers) published an article in which he explained that the automobile sector is experiencing one of the greatest periods of transformation in its history, which will mean that “in three years’ time, an electric car will cost a similar amount to a conventional car.”

Electric cars: Fashion, trend or reality?Regarding the availability of charging points on public roads, an article has been published, which refers to the fact that there are currently 100,000 charging points in the European Union and it is expected that by 2025 this figure will multiply by 20 until it achieves 2 million stations.

To contribute towards achieving this objective, Circutor, a Spanish company and pioneer at a European level, has been working over the last ten years to offer recharging solutions for each of the requirements that electric vehicle users may have, both on public roads with direct current equipment (rapid charge), as well as in private use (linked charge) with alternating current equipment (slow charge).

LINKED RECHARGE

This is a slower charge, using alternating current (from 3.7 kW to 22 kW Circutor eHome and eNext models), which connects to you car’s parking space. The main objective of this way of charging is to take advantage of the night-time hours when most people have their car parked, charging it in 6 to 8 hours, during which time the power required can be released from our home at night and can be obtained at a very low-cost electricity rate.

Electric cars: Fashion, trend or reality?

ON-STREET RECHARGING

On public roads there are two types of solutions, the semi-rapid one which can be found in shopping centres and hotels. This would use an alternating current recharge with a maximum power of 22 kW (URBAN model by Circutor).

The second solution is the faster one and is designed for service stations that offer electric recharging, these are known as electricity stations. For these, recharging is carried out with direct current (50/150 kW Circutor's Raption Model), and the time required must be as short as possible, not more than 30 minutes.

Electric cars: Fashion, trend or reality?

The combination and implementation of the different recharging types begin to guarantee the user the ability to travel in Electric Vehicles with the same promise of autonomy that combustion vehicles offer today, but while enjoying a whole new driving experience, and most importantly respecting the environment and building a sustainable future for the generations to come.

The imminent deployment of charging points, in combination with commitments from large automobile manufacturers as well as growing public awareness, leave no doubt in our minds and allow us to vouch wholeheartedly that the Electric Vehicle is not a passing fashion or trend, but it is a reality and a global commitment, which will radically change, and is already changing, our current mobility model.

Electric cars: Fashion, trend or reality?

Discover Line: The first integral Energy Management System (EMSi) on the market

on .

Line: Energy Efficiency is that easy as that !

Discover Line: Integral Energy Management System

 

We are pleased to introduce our new commitment towards innovation. A solution developed with the aim of simplifying the configuration and implementation of an energy management systems.

We will launch the Line solution on next July 1st. the first and unique EMSi in the market (integral Energy Management System)

 


Integral energy management
Integral installation control
Integral maintenance

Line: integral Energy Management System
We are pleased to welcome you to the presentation of the new Line solution

 

Do not miss the presentation in a unique online event in which we will discover the power of this new integral energy manaments tool (EMSi).

The online presentation will take place on July 1st. Book your place and join the event to discover the new integral Energy Management System.

Join us for the presentation of the new Line solution

 

Register and reserve your place.

 

(Limited places up to 1000 attendees)

Circutor webinars videos

on .

Access now the videos of the different Webinars that Circutor has made

Couldn't attend a webinar you were interested in? Do you want to watch a Webinar again to review its content?

Now you can access the recordings of the Webinars, whenever you want.

 

Simply complete the following form and you will be able to access the content of all the Circutor Webinars carried out :

 

REC. New self-reclosing RCCB's

on .

New self-reclosing RCCB's for all kinds of applications

 

In view of the increasing use of electronic loads in installations and of the need to maintain the protection and continuity of service in lines with a certain level of criticality, CIRCUTOR is launching a new range of Type A and Type B self-reclosing RCCB.

Both guarantee the improved continuity of the electrical service through a reclosing sequence with 3 attempts, timed with respect to one another.

Designed to reduce installation time, it features a self-powered system and an optimised physical design that adds a single module for reclosing.

Front ON/OFF switch that allows blocking the reclosing device, as well as a seal to make it impossible to tamper with the RCCB.

It is an ideal unit for applications where onsite maintenance is not possible, such as telecommunications facilities, DTT systems, telephone systems, production lines and critical installations.

 

 

REC4
Type A self-reclosing RCCB

 

RECB
Type B self-reclosing RCCB

RCCB capable of handling sinusoidal leakage currents and pulsating wave currents.
Industrial earth leakage protection with 30 and 300 mA sensitivities, in 2- and 4-pole electrical installations of up to 63 A.
2-pole models available with reclosing by insulation mode, perfect for the household sector, with a special emphasis on second homes, swimming pools, irrigation systems, community areas, and other applications.

 

 

Capable of handling sinusoidal leakage currents up to 1 kHz, pulsating wave currents and direct current. Perfect for electronic loads that have parts working with direct current such as speed regulators, climate control, electric vehicle charging points, photovoltaic applications, UPS, etc.

 REC4. Type A self-reclosing RCCB    RECB. Type B self-reclosing RCCB
Available in: 2 Poles, 3 modules
Available in: 4 Poles, 5 modules
   Available in: 4 Poles, 5 modules
Type A protection
Sinusoidal alternating current
Pulsating alternating current
  Type B protection
Sinusoidal alternating current
Pulsating alternating current
Direct current

 

 

self-reclosing RCCB's

 

 

REC4 leaflet   RECB leaflet 

 

Timed reclosing system

 

Lockout & Safety

 Timed reclosing system

   Lockout & Safety

 

For all kinds of applications

 Viviendas y segundas residencias

Houses and second homes

 

 Puntos de recarga de vehículos eléctricos

Electric vehicle charging points

Services sector

Services sector

 

Telecommunications, Data centres

Telecommunications, Data centres

Industrial sector

Industrial sector

 

VSD, VFD, elevators

VSD, VFD, elevators

MYeBOX®. Energy Audits and Class A Power Quality

on .

Everyone is well aware of the importance of measuring electrical parameters correctly to help us make the right decisions regarding energy efficiency and its consequent short-term cost-effectiveness, but we often find that not only is it necessary to perform energy audits to quantify the energy consumed by our different installations, but power quality or transient events must also be detected and recorded at our installations.

Such power quality faults, although often referred to as hidden costs, lead to production downtime, loss of material, unproductive staff hours, etc., and in some cases may be much costlier for companies than poor energy management.

MYeBOX® is a new system enabling energy audits to be performed which comply with the ISO 50001 certification, quality analysis according to the EN 50160 Standard and now also class A certification under the IEC 61000-4-30 Standard.

Remote management

The MYeBOX system stands out from its competitors with its new connectivity features, allowing devices to be fully managed in a simple, intuitive way from any location via a mobile application or the MYeBOX Cloud platform. These tools allow the user to remotely access the device and verify connection, device configuration, parameterise desired logging intervals, enable and configure power quality or transient event detection, alarms and even start or stop data logging. The possibility to remotely view the parameters measured by the device on a mobile terminal allows the user to detect faulty installation and/or device configuration and correct any problems immediately. This leads to important savings in time and travel costs, other devices only detecting such faults after downloading the data and obliging the user to make several trips to the installation to retake measurements.

Versatility
MYeBOX®

One of MYeBOX's most outstanding features is that the device's wiring may be modified by firmware. What advantages does this have? Once the device has been installed, if the user detects that the parameters measured by the device are incorrect due to faulty wiring, data logging may be stopped, the device's wiring can be remotely modified and data logging resumed, thereby saving a trip without the need to retake measurements.

Single solution for simultaneous measurements

MYeBOX®By allowing remote configuration, the internal clocks of the devices can be synchronised via the mobile terminal or web platform, guaranteeing that all devices simultaneously logging at an installation have the same timestamp for all their logs. This is essential when determining the consequences or effects of a disturbance on the rest of the installation. If the devices being measured are not synchronised, it is impossible to draw cause/effect conclusions.

Remote management

One of the most recurrent needs of an energy audit is the need to carry out different measurements at different points in the same installation. This need usually requires long, costly journeys to the installations where the devices are measuring in order to stop data logging, move them to the new measuring point and restart logging. MYeBOX enables data logging to be stopped remotely and any company maintenance personnel (qualified and following safety guidelines) may then be asked to change the device's location. Once the device is in the new location, its correct wiring and configuration can be remotely checked, and data logging started again.

Multiple analysis

With a conventional analyser, the user is required to set a recording interval that applies to all variables. Although this may seem unimportant, it does penalise the user in that the recording interval for an energy audit to comply with EN50160 must be every 10 minutes. What happens if the user also needs to record some variables such as voltage and current every second? It simply cannot be done simultaneously. Such variables need to be recorded again and a one-second interval must be selected. MYeBOX is a precise, all-in-one device in that it allows the user to perform various types of installation analysis. How does it do so? It is the only analyser on the market that allows "per se" configuration of different recording intervals for different variables or variable sets. Logging of variables such as voltage and current per second may be configured and other variables can be recorded at 10-minute intervals.

Alarms

MYeBOX enables the configuration of certain alarms related to the value of some electrical magnitudes measured by the device. These alarms may be e-mailed to different users of that particular analyser, thereby actively controlling the installation.

MYeBOX®

MYeBOX may therefore be tailored to meet any requirements that help installers and maintenance managers make the right decisions at the right time, saving both indirect and direct costs in the most flexible, efficient way.

 

More information: MYeBOX®. Portable power analyzer

 

Why should I protect my facility with Type B Earth Leakage Protection?

on .

IEC 60755 establishes the types of earth leakage protection, defining them according to the type of leak that they measure and protect against.

The leak basically depends on the type of charge that it comes from. Therefore, taking the most basic example, a purely resistive charge (the classic Edison incandescent light bulb, for example), provided it is powered by a source using alternating current, will leak to earth with a perfectly sinusoidal differential current.

But load types have developed exponentially since Edison's time. Especially in relation to the use of loads for power electronics, which have become widespread in recent years. Type B earth leakage protection is the only protection that safeguards people and loads against leakage of alternating current (AC), direct current (DC) or mixed current (AC/DC).

Types of earth leakage protection

The IEC 60755, IEC61008-1, IEC 62423 and IEC-60947-2-M standards establish the following types of earth leakage protection:

AC type protection

This protects against alternating sinusoidal currents, applied both suddenly as well as smoothly and progressively.

Although it’s prohibited in some countries in the European Union, in Spain its use is mainly extended to the domestic level, where more basic loads predominate.

Type A protection

This one deals with the same cases as the AC type and also includes:

  • Protection for direct pulsating currents
  • Protection for direct pulsating currents superimposed on a continuous earth leakage current of up to 6 mA

These are applied with or without angle control, regardless of polarity, that may appear both suddenly as well as smoothly and progressively.

It’s the commonest protection type in industrial settings and, in some parts of Europe, it’s also compulsory for domestic use.

Type F protection

This covers the scenarios included in type A (remembering that type AC has already been mentioned) and it also provides:

  • Protection for composite earth leakage alternating currents (including wave composition with frequencies of 1 kHz), appearing both suddenly as well as smoothly and progressively, intended for circuits powered between phase and neutral or phase and the grounded middle conductor.
  • Protection for alternating earth leakage currents superimposed on a smoothed direct current (mixed current).

These types of earth leakage are the least commonly used; they are mostly used in special single-phase applications.

Type B protection

It deals with the scenarios for type F (that is, type AC + type A) and also provides:

  • Protection for sinusoidal differential currents up to 1000 Hz
  • Protection for alternating earth leakage currents superimposed on smoothed direct currents up to 0.4 times the nominal sensitivity of the protection device or up to 10 mA (whichever is higher)
  • Protection for smoothed continuous earth leakage currents.
  • Protection for pure continuous earth leakage currents that may arise from correcting electrical circuits (for example, 3 or 6 pulse bridge connections) that are applied with or without angle control, regardless of polarity, that appear both suddenly as well as smoothly and progressively.

This is the most complete type of protection. It guarantees the measurement and protection against loads of alternating current, pulsating current or pure direct current.

Typical loads and applications that need to use type B differential protection

The way charges have developed over the 21st century presents a response as described in the cases referred to in the description of the leakage types protected by type B earth leakage protection. The most typical applications and loads are as follows:

Industry: Variable speed drives, used in countless different processes, such as conveyor belts, air conditioning, pumps, cranes, elevators of any kind, etc. In short, any process that requires a variable speed movement to carry out its function. What motor does not incorporate a drive nowadays?

Industry

Offices: UPSs for data protection centres

Offices

EV charging: EV charging points. Photovoltaics

EV charging

Equipment with power electronics, Inverters, Harmonic filtering (active filter), etc.

Equipment with power electronics

When should I protect my loads with Type B protection? Legal framework and requirements for earth leakage protection TYPE B

In Spain the Low Voltage electrotechnical regulation (REBT 2002) establishes in ITC-BT-24 (Spanish) the obligation to protect the installation against direct and indirect contacts for installations with type TT earth connection plans (all the mass of the electrical equipment and the neutral of the transformer on the same earth).

However, except for ITC-BT-52 (Official State Bulletin No. 316), which is specifically for EV recharging points and where it is established that the protection will be type B or type A with a supplementary protection for continuous currents of values greater than 6 mA, the regulation does not establish any advice or criteria for selecting the type of earth leakage in our facility.

So, how do I choose for other cases?

We’ve already shown that the type of earth leakage dictates the type of loads it protects from, based on its response. It makes sense, therefore, to bear in mind that each load will use a type of earth leakage protection based on the type of earth leakage it can present.

IEC 60755 standard sets out the general requirements for residual current devices. It establishes the different types of leakage in relation to the different types of charges.

Nobody understands the way loads respond better than the manufacturer itself.

Therefore, when we select a type of earth leakage protection, we must consult the load manuals containing instructions on how to manage its correct protection. Otherwise, in the event of an equipment malfunction, or worse, in the event of an electrical incident due to human error, by not following the manufacturer's instructions, the responsibility for misuse will obviously rest with the end user.

The most reputable manufacturers of drives, UPSs, electric vehicle recharging units, active filters, etc. specify in the section on installation recommendations or warnings the correct load protection and for avoiding untimely trips, the earth leakage protection to be installed must be TYPE B.


Manual example of a 6-pulse drive manufacturer:

Compatibility with RCCBs

Compatibility with RCCBs.
If you are installing an earth leakage protection device (RCD), the frequency converter will function without unwanted tripping and will provide adequate protection whenever a type B earth leakage device is used

Vertical selectivity

We have seen that in order to select the type of earth leakage protection we need, we must look at the load response. However, when we install earth leakage devices in series, upstream of the charge, what selection criteria should we use?

This is what is known as vertical selectivity. The correct selection of the characteristics of the earth leakage devices in series, from the beginning of the charge, through the set of charges (sub-frames) and reaching the protection of the mains panels, should not only take into account the type of charge, but also we must consider other aspects that will indicate the correct coordination of the protection system.

These 3 conditions must always be met in vertical selectivity:

  • Ammeter: The sensitivity of an earth leakage must be at least 3 times the sensitivity of the earth leakage device installed downstream.
  • Chronometric: The time response of an earth leakage device must be at least twice the maximum time of the earth leakage device installed downstream.
  • Type: The earth leakage must be of the same type or higher than the earth leakage device installed downstream

Thus, for vertical coordination of types of earth leakage device, the following table may be helpful:

vertical coordination of types of earth leakage device

Therefore, whenever we protect a load with type B protection, all the protection that is in series upstream (subframes, general earth leakage protection) must also be type B

CIRCUTOR Solutions for Type B Earth Leakage Protection

Given the growing requirement of users to cover protections of this type of charge, CIRCUTOR has a wide range of type B earth leakage protection solutions.

IDB-4IDB-4: 4-pole type B RCCB for three-phase and single-phase installations up to 63 A. Sensitivity of 30 or 300 mA (direct earth leakage device), instantaneous trip time.

WGB-35-TBWGB-35-TB: Earth leakage relay with transformer included (MRCD), for loads up to 125 A. Sensitivities of 30 or 300 mA, instantaneous or selective trip time.

RGU-10BRGU-10B: Earth leakage relay associated with transformers of the WGC-TB (MRCD) range, up to 180 mm internal diameter, allowing protection of charges of up to 800 A. Sensitivity from 100 mA, programmable trip time.

RGU-10BRGU-100B: Earth leakage relay associated with transformers of the WGB (MRCD) range, up to 110 mm internal diameter, allowing protection of loads of up to 400 A. Sensitivity from 30 mA, instantaneous and programmable trip time.

RGU-10BCBS-400B: Earth leakage relay associated with transformers of the WGB (MRCD) range, up to 110 mm internal diameter, allowing protection of loads of up to 400 A. Sensitivity from 30 mA. With 4 channels for the protection of 4 totally independent circuits. Instantaneous and programmable trip time.


In addition to the protection systems mentioned above, CIRCUTOR also has a novel and innovative type B earth leakage protection system with automatic reconnection:

RECBRECB: 4-pole type B RCCB with automatic reclosing for three-phase and single-phase installations up to 63 A. Sensitivity of 30 or 300 mA (direct differential device). Instantaneous trip time.

Conclusions

We have seen how the different types of earth leakage devices (AC, A, F and B) are defined, according to international framework regulations, and according to the type of leakage they protect against. In other words: the type of earth leakage device is intrinsically linked to the operation and technology of the load to be protected.

It is therefore essential, for the correct selection of the type of earth leakage device, to know what response it has and how the load to be protected works. Manufacturers of the loads, in their manuals and advice, will indicate the approach to take and how to make the selection.

It is equally important to respect all vertical selectivity conditions for the correct coordination of our protection upstream of the charge and at the head of the installation, also respecting the type of earth leakage device.

With these basic guidelines, we will not only ensure maximum continuity of service to preserve the protection of the charges and assets of our facility, but we will also guarantee the safety of individuals.

Joan Auleda
Product Manager Circutor

TD, TQ and TQR. Transformers for current measurement

on .

Current transformers for any type of installation

Solutions for low-voltage current measurement

The installation of current transformers allows the different measuring devices to provide reliable and traceable data on the evolution of consumption and production processes in electrical installations.

FD-td-tq-tqr-ico-disenoDesigned in collaboration with installers
 
In the continuous process of improvement of our products, and thanks to the accumulated experience of our installers, we have designed this new range of current transformers to be installed quickly, easily and robustly. Meeting the most demanding expectations of the current market

Designed in collaboration with installers

Solutions for every type of installation

TD transformers
Easier to install

Thanks to our partnership with installers, our TD current transformers have a new and improved design to cover any need that may arise during their installation. The different models take into account aspects involving both their easy installation and their power optimisation when being connected to any electronic measurement device.

TD transformers
TQ and TQR transformers
Installation without interruption

The split-core TQ and TQR transformers have been designed to be connected to installations already in operation. A simple, two-step process makes for easy installation that saves on indirect costs, avoiding to disconnect the supply before start-up.

TQ and TQR transformers

TD. Narrow section transformers

Easier to install

TD. Narrow section transformers

FD-td-tq-tqr-ico-sujecionAttachment using ties

New tie fastening system built in at the transformer itself for an easy, fast and secure installation.

Attachment using ties

FD-td-tq-tqr-ico-resinablesEncapsulation

The inside of the transformers can be encapsulated for installation in very humid or saline environments.

FD-td-tq-tqr-ico-bajas-pLow losses

Ideal for installation with any type of device, especially for low-energy electronic equipment.

FD-td-tq-tqr-ico-precisosAccurate

Best measuring accuracy guaranteed when connected to any type of receiver.

FD-td-tq-tqr-ico-versatilesVersatile

Multiple formats for connecting the transformer.

  • DIN rail: Two-way fastening with an accessory for connecting to the DIN rail, whether connecting vertically or horizontally.
  • Panel: The transformers have individual parts for installation at the bottom of a panel.
  • Busbar/Cable: Enclosure with different window options for installing directly on a busbar or cable, using insulated-tip screws or ties, for secure fastening.
Versatile
Versatile

Accessories for TD current transformers

Accessory for installing TD transformers to DIN rail. We can bidirectionally fix the device to a DIN rail with just this accessory, as it provides the possibility of fixing it either horizontally or vertically.

Accessories for TD current transformers


FD-td-tq-tqr-ico-precintablesSealable

It has optional accessories for sealing the terminals and the transformer label.

Sealable

Sealable

FD-td-tq-tqr-ico-testTest report online

Download the test reports for Circutor's TD transformers free of charge from:

http://testreport.circutor.com

Test report online

Test report online


Accessories for TD current transformers 

Accessories for sealing TD series current transformers. The TD-Cover kit consists of a transparent cover that is placed at the top of the transformer, disabling access to the secondary connection terminals, and it can be sealed to avoid any manipulation. It also includes two caps, common to any TD series model, to prevent access to the secondary terminals that remain unused once the measurement devices are connected.

Accessories for TD current transformers


TQ. Split-core current transformers

Installation without interruption

TQ. Split-core current transformers

FD-td-tq-tqr-ico-aperturaPush-button opening

Simple installation with instant opening using the push button, avoiding the use of removable parts.

Push-button opening

Push-button opening

FD-td-tq-tqr-ico-versatilesVersatile

Installation to DIN rail or directly on conductors. Feature non-metallic parts to ensure fastening in busbars with plates.

Versatile

FD-td-tq-tqr-ico-ligerosLightweight and compact

New design that reduces its weight and size for easier installation in any electrical panel.

Lightweight and compact

FD-td-tq-tqr-ico-precisosAccurate

Guarantee the best measuring accuracy when connected to any type of receiver.

FD-td-tq-tqr-ico-bajas-pLow losses

Ideal for installation with any type of device, especially for low-energy electronic equipment.

FD-td-tq-tqr-ico-precintablesSealable

Prevents tampering with the electrical connections by sealing the terminal block of the current transformer.

TQR. Split-core current transformers

Installation without interruption

TQR. Split-core current transformers

FD-td-tq-tqr-ico-aperturaPush-button opening

Simple installation with instant opening using the push button, avoiding the use of removable parts.

Push-button opening

FD-td-tq-tqr-ico-sujecionAttachment using ties

New tie fastening system for an easy, fast and secure installation.

Attachment using ties

Adjustable

FD-td-tq-tqr-ico-ajustableAdjustable

Designed with a circular cross-section to fully adapt to the wiring cross-section, improving the measurement accuracy.

Adjustable

Low losses

FD-td-tq-tqr-ico-bajas-pLow losses

Ideal for installation with any type of device, especially for low-energy electronic equipment.

FD-td-tq-tqr-ico-precisosAccurate

Guarantee the best measuring accuracy when connected to any type of receiver.

FD-td-tq-tqr-ico-ipHigh IP rating

Transformers with high IP65 protection, thanks to a sealing joint that keeps particles out of the connection terminals.


 

More information: TD, TQ and TQR. Transformers for current measurement

 

Can any capacitor bank with filters be used for power factor correction in networks affected by harmonics?

on .

The typical power factor correction solution for networks with harmonic distortion is usually based on standard devices, but the use of specific equipment is sometimes required in certain cases.

Capacitor banks with detuned filters

The specific characteristics of power factor correction in networks with high harmonic distortion levels, both in voltage and current, are now becoming more and more familiar to those who have to recommend the appropriate capacitor bank for each electrical installation.

Generally speaking, most companies that manufacture automatic capacitor banks include devices designed to be used in networks with a certain level of harmonic distortion in their catalogues. CIRCUTOR, in particular, offers a complete range of automatic capacitor banks, with both contactor and thyristor operation, as well as fixed compensation units, equipped with rejection filters (also known as detuned filters) with 189 Hz tuning frequency (in 50 Hz networks), equivalent to an overvoltage factor of p = 7 %. 

This 189 Hz tuning frequency is CIRCUTOR's default choice; it offers a suitable, effective solution for the vast majority of installations requiring a capacitor bank fitted with detuned filters, ideal when faced with order 5 harmonics (250 Hz in 50 Hz networks) or higher, which are usually produced by the most common sources of harmonic currents, i.e. three-phase loads equipped with a 6-pulse bridge rectifier at their input: variable speed drives or frequency variators, AC/DC rectifiers, induction furnaces, ...

In the less likely event of order 3 harmonics (150 Hz in 50 Hz networks) prevailing, the installation of detuned filters tuned to 134 Hz is included as an alternative (overvoltage factor of 134 Hz p = 14 %).

  • Does this standardised 189 Hz resonance frequency mean that the choice of capacitor banks should be made simply by choosing the necessary power from the standard models?
    The reply is simply: no.
  • Is therefore wrong to choose this 189 Hz frequency as standard?
    Once again, the reply is simply: no.

 

Where does the problem lie then?


Electrical network types

The answer to this question requires a brief look at the working principle of detuned filters. If we look at the impedance-frequency diagram of a reactor-condenser unit with p = 7 % (Fig. 1), we notice that it offers the lowest impedance at 189 Hz, and the impedance increases gradually on both of its sides, with the peculiarity that the impedance is capacitive for frequencies below 189 Hz, and inductive for higher frequencies.

"It is precisely this inductive behaviour in the presence of order 5 harmonic frequencies or higher that avoids resonance phenomena at any of these frequencies."

 

But the value of this impedance at the different harmonic frequencies, as well as the short-circuit impedance value at the capacitor bank's network connection point (Xcc at PCC), are also fundamental for the detuned filter to operate correctly.

Fig. 1 - Frequency response of a detuned filter with p = 7 % (189 Hz)
Fig. 1 - Frequency response of a detuned filter with p = 7 % (189 Hz)

In a network equipped with a detuned filter, a single-line diagram and an equivalent diagram as shown in Fig. 2, the standard behaviour is that the short-circuit impedance (Xcc) at the capacitor bank - network connection point (PCC) is significantly lower than the impedance at each step of the capacitor bank, so that each harmonic current step's absorption of the harmonic currents flowing through the network should be relatively low compared to the one flowing into the network, as this is the path with the lowest impedance.

But the situation may change in the event of networks where the Xcc value is high, i.e. in networks where the short-circuit power (Scc) at the PCC is low. These types of networks are also known as soft networks.

Fig. 2 - Single-line diagram and equivalent diagram of an installation fitted with a detuned filter

Fig. 2 - Single-line diagram and equivalent diagram of an installation fitted with a detuned filter

Installations that may be vulnerable to these problems are those with low short-circuit power in the High Voltage distribution lines at the low voltage network connection point; or those fed by a power transformer whose K-factor value (harmonic overload factor), by default, is unsuitable for the harmonic contents of the loads it is supplying, or there are long cable sections between the transformer output and the capacitor bank - network PCC, leading to high impedance in this section.

In these cases, the most common effect is an increase in harmonic currents absorbed by the capacitor bank steps. In some cases, such increase may be very serious, severely overloading the capacitors and reactors comprising each detuned filter, and, especially in the case of capacitors, increasing their deterioration, usually in the form of a decrease in capacity. This decrease in capacity even increases harmonic current absorption, because, as can be seen from the formula that determines resonance frequency (Fig. 1), a capacity decrease causes an increase in tuning frequency, meaning it is even closer to the harmonic frequencies in the network (remember that order 5 generally prevails), thereby reducing impedance at that frequency, which therefore increases consumption of currents of that order.

In other words, the detuned filter starts to react in a similar way to a tuned or absorption filter, but, as it is not designed to be used as such, its capacity is exceeded, causing it to deteriorate.

In addition to this effect, the fact that networks with low Scc values, in the event of high harmonic current circulation, usually display high harmonic distortion levels (THD(U)), is another factor leading to an increase in the harmonic current absorbed by capacitors.

In short, any solution that prevents an installed capacitor bank from affecting the network, and, in turn, avoids the capacitor bank itself being affected by the presence of harmonics in the network, may not always solve the problem, with the consequent technical and commercial implications this will undoubtedly entail.

Special solutions to be implemented

So what options do we have for these types of installations when considering power factor correction by means of a capacitor bank with detuned filters ?

The first consideration is obviously to determine whether the installation to be corrected is one that is exposed, i.e. a soft network type. Unfortunately there is no infallible or simple method of doing so, but there are a number of determining factors that help us find out to a reasonably high degree of accuracy. The main ones are as follows:

  • There is a noticeable decrease in voltage value between the no load and full load condition, and current harmonic distortion level (THD(I)) is above 15 % under full load status.
  • Voltage harmonic distortion level (THD(U)), at the point where the capacitor bank is to be connected, is above 3% under the installation's no load status.
  • Voltage harmonic distortion level (THD(U)), at the point where the capacitor bank is to be connected, is above 6% under the installation's normal load conditions.

If one or more of the above conditions are met, it is highly advisable to choose a capacitor bank fitted with detuned filters whose tuning differs from the standard 189 Hz (whenever, of course, the harmonics present in the network are of order 5 or above).

What tuning is recommended ?

For such cases, CIRCUTOR proposes a 170 Hz tuning value, equivalent to p = 8.7 %, which gives high capacitor bank protection levels when installed in networks of this type.

What do we achieve by this change in tuning?

Going back to the frequency response diagram for a rejection filter (Fig. 1), when the resonance frequency decreases, filter impedance on order 5 harmonics or above increases, so high consumption of these harmonic currents is significantly reduced. Furthermore, this change in tuning is also coupled with the use of capacitors whose nominal voltage is higher than those used in standard p = 7% filters, and reactors whose inductance value (mH) also exceeds the standard. As a result, we end up with a capacitor bank that is considerably more robust than its p = 7 % power counterpart.

Case study

A real case is described below, where the implementation of two rejection filter capacitor banks, with thyristor operation, and reactor-capacitor units tuned to 170 Hz, has enabled perfect network compensation, along with considerable improvement in power supply quality (voltage quality).

The installation is for a funicular railway in the city of Barcelona, whose simplified single-line diagram is shown in Fig. 3.

Fig. 3 - Simplified single-line diagram of the installation of a funicular railway in the city of Barcelona
Fig. 3 - Simplified single-line diagram of the installation of a funicular railway in the city of Barcelona

Fig. 4 - Installation of the funicular. The capacitor bank is shown on the left of the photo
Fig. 4 - Installation of the funicular. The capacitor bank is shown on the left of the photo

These types of installation show the same characteristics as those described above when it comes to identifying any possible problems should a capacitor bank with conventional detuned filters be installed, since they are usually located far from the high voltage substation that powers them, normally with a considerable distance between the MV/LV transformer and main load, in this case, the power transducer and operating motor, and, in particular, in the presence of a power transducer that causes a rather high current harmonic distortion level.

Situation prior to the installation of the capacitor bank

Fig. 5 shows the reactive and active inductive power evolution (1 s integration period) for one of the two transformers in the installation. The appropriate capacitor bank is a CIRCUTOR device with thyristor operation, 6 x 55 kvar / 500 V / 50 Hz / p = 8.7 %, disconnected.

Fig. 5 - Evolution for the Active Three-Phase Generated Power (red), Active Three-Phase Consumed Power (green), and Inductive Reactive Consumed Power (purple and blue)
Fig. 5 - Evolution for the Active Three-Phase Generated Power (red), Active Three-Phase Consumed Power (green), and Inductive Reactive Consumed Power (purple and blue)

Fig. 6 clearly indicates the effect of the current value supplied by the transformer on the mains voltage, another clear symptom of a soft network.

Fig. 6 - Evolution for Voltage between L1 and L2 phases (blue) and Current Intensity in L1 (green) at Point A
Fig. 6 - Evolution for Voltage between L1 and L2 phases (blue) and Current Intensity in L1 (green) at Point A

Fig.7 shows the evolution for voltage distortion levels THD(U), which are significantly higher at peak current consumption by the power transducer.

Fig. 7 - Voltage harmonic distortion evolution per phase at Point A
Fig. 7 - Voltage harmonic distortion evolution per phase at Point A

Fig. 8 - Voltage and current wave shapes at times of peak transducer consumption
Fig. 8 - Voltage and current wave shapes at times of peak transducer consumption

Present situation, after capacitor bank installation

Fig. 9 shows the reactive and active inductive power evolution (1 s integration period) for one of the two transformers in the installation. Capacitor bank now operational.

Fig. 9 - Evolution for the Active Three-Phase Generated Power (red), Active Three-Phase Consumed Power (green), and Inductive Reactive Consumed Power (purple and blue)
Fig. 9 - Evolution for the Active Three-Phase Generated Power (red), Active Three-Phase Consumed Power (green), and Inductive Reactive Consumed Power (purple and blue)

Fig. 10 shows how the decrease in current value supplied by the transformer significantly reduces network voltage variations, improving power quality.

Fig. 10 - Evolution for Voltage between L1 and L2 phases (blue) and Current Intensity in L1 (green) at Point A
Fig. 10 - Evolution for Voltage between L1 and L2 phases (blue) and Current Intensity in L1 (green) at Point A

Fig. 11 shows voltage distortion level THD(U) evolution when the power factor correction device is operating. Comparing these values with those in Fig. 7, a significant reduction in voltage harmonic distortion rates can be observed (around 40% for peak values). The connection of the capacitor bank has a double rate-reducing effect, by both absorbing a certain percentage of the harmonic current generated by the transducers on the part of the capacitors (in this case, no damage will be caused to the capacitors as they are specifically reinforced for such cases), and by reducing the current passing between the power transformer output and PCC, which significantly reduces the harmonic voltage drop in this cable, as well as reducing the transformer's own internal losses. In short, though high distortion levels are still present, network voltage quality improves to more acceptable values, leading to a noticeable improvement in the installation's power supply quality, thereby minimising the risk of the device malfunctioning.

Fig. 11 - Voltage harmonic distortion evolution per phase at Point A
Fig. 11 - Voltage harmonic distortion evolution per phase at Point A

Final conclusions

Having considered the foregoing, the best conclusion from those considered would be CIRCUTOR's standard, frequent recommendation to analyse, wherever possible, any installation whose power factor correction requires the use of a capacitor bank, to discard any doubts or fears we might have about possible effects of harmonic distortion in the network; an analysis that gives us the information required to make the right, safe choice of the most appropriate device to meet each particular case. With this in mind, please remember that CIRCUTOR has a full market range of network analysers, using state-of-the-art technology, which, together with effective data management software, enable any study to be carried out on the topics described in this article.

CIRCUTOR, your most reliable ally when requirements are related to power factor correction.

More information:

Solutions for Low Voltage Power Factor Correction

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